Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) Gastric Bypass


About the BPD/DS

The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated as BPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed.

The BPD/DS Procedure

The duodenum, or the first portion of the small intestine, is divided just past the outlet of the stomach. A segment of the distal (last portion) small intestine is then brought up and connected to the outlet of the newly created stomach, so that when the patient eats, the food goes through a newly created tubular stomach pouch and empties directly into the last segment of the small intestine. Roughly three-fourths of the small intestine is bypassed by the food stream.

The bypassed small intestine, which carries the bile and pancreatic enzymes that are necessary for the breakdown and absorption of protein and fat, is reconnected to the last portion of the small intestine so that they can eventually mix with the food stream. Similar to the other surgeries described above, the BPD/DS initially helps to reduce the amount of food that is consumed; however, over time this effect lessens and patients are able to eventually consume near “normal” amounts of food. Unlike the other procedures, there is a significant amount of small bowel that is bypassed by the food stream.

Additionally, the food does not mix with the bile and pancreatic enzymes until very far down the small intestine. This results in a significant decrease in the absorption of calories and nutrients (particularly protein and fat) as well as nutrients and vitamins dependent on fat for absorption (fat soluble vitamins and nutrients). Lastly, the BPD/DS, similar to the gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, affects guts hormones in a manner that impacts hunger and satiety as well as blood sugar control. The BPD/DS is considered to be the most effective surgery for the treatment of diabetes among those that are described here.

Am I a BPD/DS candidate

Supplied by BMI Calculator USA

To be a candidate for any type of weight loss surgery, the individual must be severely (BMI > 35) or morbidly (BMI > 40) obese. Morbid obesity is usually defined as being about 100 pounds over your ideal body weight. A better way of defining morbid obesity is by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is a calculated number that takes weight and height into consideration. A person weighing 300 pounds who is 5ft tall will have a higher BMI than a person weighing 300 pounds but is 6ft tall.

To determine if you qualify for the BPD/DS, you can start by entering your weight and height into a BMI calculator.

Insurance companies often will have additional criteria to qualify for weight loss surgery. Our office can help you determine what those are. Below you will find the basic criteria most insurance companies use to determine if patients qualify for weight loss surgery:

  • A Body Mass Index (BMI) equal to or greater than 40, regardless if medical problems or co-morbidities are present or not.

  • A Body Mass Index (BMI) equal to or greater than 35 and experiencing severe negative health effects or co-morbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and/or sleep apnea.


  • Results in greater weight loss than RYGB, LSG, or AGB, i.e. 60 – 70% percent excess weight loss or greater, at 5 year follow up

  • Allows patients to eventually eat near “normal” meals

  • Reduces the absorption of fat by 70 percent or more

  • Causes favorable changes in gut hormones to reduce appetite and improve satiety

  • Is the most effective against diabetes compared to RYGB, LSG, and AGB


  • Has higher complication rates and risk for mortality than the AGB, LSG, and RYGB

  • Requires a longer hospital stay than the AGB or LSG

  • Has a greater potential to cause protein deficiencies and long-term deficiencies in a number of vitamin and minerals, i.e. iron, calcium, zinc, fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin D

  • Compliance with follow-up visits and care and strict adherence to dietary and vitamin supplementation guidelines are critical to avoiding serious complications from protein and certain vitamin deficiencies

Deciding on the BPD/DS

The decision about which operation is best for you is a complicated one. The decision to proceed is based on the premise that the treatment should be less harmful than the disease being treated. Please read the “obesity & weight loss surgery” section of our website to learn about the disease, and the benefits weight loss surgery can offer to morbidly obese patients. Although the information presented throughout our website may be helpful, you will be able to learn substantially more about the benefits and risks of the BPD/DS operation during your consultation with the bariatric surgeon.